Research Publications

Addressing Agricultural Migrant Worker Protection

2015. J. Hennebry, J. McLaughlin and K. Preibisch. Submission for the Changing Workplaces Review.

Informal Migrant Entrepreneurship and Inclusive Growth in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique

2014. J. Crush, C. Skinner and A. Chikanda. Southern African Migration Programme (SAMP). Migration Policy Series No. 68

Migrant Entrepreneurship, Collective Violence and Xenophobia in South Africa

2014. J. Crush and S. Ramachandran. Southern African Migration Programme (SAMP). Migration Policy Series No. 67

International migration of health professionals and the marketization and privatization of health education in India: From push-pull to global political economy.

2014. M. Walton-Roberts. Social Science and Medicine, in press.

Health worker migration theories have tended to focus on labour market conditions as principal push or pull factors. The role of education systems in producing internationally oriented health workers has been less explored. In place of the traditional conceptual approaches to understanding health worker, especially nurse, migration, Dr. Walton-Roberts advocates global political economy (GPE) as a perspective that can highlight how educational investment and global migration tendencies are increasing interlinked.

Brain Drain and Regain: The Migration Behaviour of South African Medical Professionals

2014. J. Crush, A. Chikanda, I. Bourgeault, R. Labonté and G. Tomblin Murphy. The Southern African Migration Programme (SAMP) Migration Policy Series No. 65

South Asian Diasporas in Canada

2013. M. Walton-Roberts. A special issue of South Asian Diaspora, Vol. 5, Issue 1.

A comparative examination of Indian and Philippine internationally educated nurses and their entry into Ontario’s nursing profession

2012. M.Walton-Roberts and J. Hennebry. CERIS-Ontario Metropolis Report

Using two case study groups this research examines the extent to which nurses entering Ontario as temporary migrants through the live-in-caregiver program (LCP) and as international students convert to permanent status and reenter the nursing profession. In particular, what are the pathways (re-training, language training, etc) these nurses take to gain reentry into the profession? Finally, what are the impacts of this emerging “temp-to perm” model of migration, on the nursing sector, and immigrant social and economic integration?

The enforcement archipelago: detention, haunting and asylum on islands

2011. A. Mountz. Political Geography, 30 (2011): 118-128.

From offshore border enforcement to detention centers on remote islands, struggles over human smuggling, detention, asylum, and associated policies play out along the geographical margins of the nation-state. In this paper, I argue that islands are part of a broader enforcement archipelago of detention, a tactic of migration control. Island enforcement practices deter, detain, and deflect migrants from the shores of sovereign territory. Islands thus function as key sites of territorial struggle where nation-states use distance, invisibility, and sub-national jurisdictional status (Baldacchino & Milne, 2006) to operationalize Ong’s (2006) ‘graduated zones of sovereignty’. In sites that introduce ambiguity into migrants’ legal status, state and non-state actors negotiate and illuminate geopolitical arrangements that structure mobility. This research traces patterns among distant and distinct locations through examination of sovereign and biopolitical powers that haunt asylum-seekers detained on islands. Offshore detention, in turn, fuels spatial strategies employed in onshore detention practices internal to sovereign territory.
2010. McLaughlin, J. Health Studies, Paper 3.

2010. Indianna Minto-Coy. In İhsan Günaydın and Hilmi Erdoğan Yayla, What Others Manifest? The World Economy in the Theoretical Turbulence of the Global Financial Crisis, Turkey: Gümüşhane University Press, pp. 2-18

Remittancing is increasingly seen as the bedrock of the diaspora’s contribution and engagement with the home country. Remittancing is, however, vulnerable to the fortunes of migrants who are in turn susceptible to fluctuations in the economies in which they are based. These locations tend to be the more developed or industrialized nations in the world. Unfortunately, these are among the nations that have been most adversely and directly hit by the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. This discussion aims to assess the real and potential impact of this downturn at the macro and micro level. It investigates the impact of the GFC on remittancing and the implications for the increasing dependence on this source of development funds.

Organizing from the Maquiladoras to the University: Dialogue and reflections among women migrant and maquiladora workers in Mexico

2010. Evelyn Encalada Grez.

In February researchers from the International Migration Research Centre participated in “the First Forum on International Migration and Transnational Studies” hosted by the “Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla” (BUAP) in the capital of the state of Puebla in Mexico. This forum was part of a joint initiative with the centre through a Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) “North American Research Linkages” grant.  The forum brought together researchers from all over Mexico, as well as Europe, Canada and the United States, to discuss points of interest in the ample field of transnational migration studies.

Who has their eye on the ball? “Jurisdictional fútbol” and Canada’s Temporary Foreign Worker Program

2010. J. Hennebry. Options Politiques, Juillet-Août.

A paradigm shift is well underway in Canada with respect to migration, one in which temporary migration rivals permanent migration and where the transition from temporary to permanent status has become the “new normal,” says Jenna Hennebry. Here she discusses some of the changing realities of Canada’s Temporary Foreign Worker Program, and asks whether it is a “win-win” policy for both Canada and the sending countries. With particular attention to the impact on development and labour market distortion, she discusses the growing trend toward “two-step” migration, and reflects on the jurisdictional “fútbol” that characterizes this program.

A model for managed migration? Re-examining best practices in Canada’s Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program

2010. J. Hennebry and K. Preibisch. International Migration, doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00598.x

This paper situates Canada’s Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP) within the policy and scholarly debates on ‘‘best practices’’ for the management of temporary migration, and examines what makes this programme successful from the perspective of states and employers. Drawing on extensive qualitative and quantitative study of temporary migration in Canada, this article critically examines this seminal temporary migration programme as a ‘‘best practice model’’ from internationally recognized rights-based approaches to labour migration, and provides some additional best practices for the management of temporary labour migration programmes. This paper examines how the reality of the Canadian SAWP
measures up, when the model is evaluated according to internationally recognized best practices and migrant rights regimes. Despite all of the attention to building ‘‘best practices’’ for the management of temporary or managed migration, it appears that Canada has taken steps further away from these and other international frameworks. The analysis reveals that
while the Canadian programme involves a number of successful practices, such as the cooperation between origin and destination countries, transparency in the admissions criteria for selection, and access to health care for temporary migrants; the programme does not adhere to the majority of best practices emerging in international forums, such as the recognition of
migrants’ qualifications, providing opportunities for skills transfer, avoiding imposing forced savings schemes, and providing paths to permanent residency. This paper argues that as Canada takes significant steps toward the expansion of temporary migration, Canada’s model programme still falls considerably short of being an inspirational model, and instead
provides us with little more than an idealized myth.

Not just a few bad apples: Vulnerability, health and temporary migration in Canada

2010. J. Hennebry. Canadian Issues/Thèmes Canadiens, Spring.

With the support of CERIS Ontario Metropolis Centre and the Public Health Agency of Canada, this research identifies the myriad of health risks for international temporary migrants in agriculture, and characterizes the factors that may increase their vulnerability. Based on a quantitative survey of nearly 800 temporary migrants in agriculture, carried out in partnership with the United Food and Commercial Workers Union, this research points to three important realities: 1) temporary migrants are a vulnerable population due to largely structural factors, 2) there are transnational health implications of temporary migration, such that, when temporary migrants become ill, they are unlikely to receive adequate treatment and thus return home with the illness unresolved, and 3) risk, vulnerability and transferability are compounded for this group and consequently, concerns regarding migrant health, particularly with respect to communicable/infectious, food-borne and water-borne disease, need to extend beyond the individual worker to both to migrants’ home communities and Canadian communities.

The Canadian Temporary Foreign Worker Program: Do short-term economic needs prevail over human rights concerns?

2010. D. Nakache and P.J. Kinoshita. IRPP Study No. 5.

A new study was published by the Institute for Research on Public Policy examines the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP), in order to determine the Canadian and Albertan approaches to integrating and protecting these migrants. It draws on documentary research and interviews conducted in spring 2009 with a number of people involved in the TFWP. The authors found that the short term focus of Canada’s temporary labour migration policy will not help the country realize its long-term labour market needs and is unfair to the vast majority of temporary foreign workers. Nakache and Kinoshita make numerous recommendations including  that the work permit be restructured to allow these migrants greater mobility and enforcement mechanisms be used to protect them from abusive practices.

Diasporas and development: an assessment of the Irish experience for the Caribbean

2009. Indianna D. Minto-Coy. CIGI Caribbean Paper No. 7.

Dialogue on diasporas and their role in the development of the home country has grown in the last twenty years and Caribbean states have begun to identify ways they can engage their nationals residing abroad in this process. Those in the region looking to harness the power of the diaspora have turned their attention to the example of Ireland, a country with a large diaspora that has contributed significantly to its national advancement. By highlighting the lessons of the Irish experience, this paper argues that while the Caribbean’s diaspora has the desire to contribute and does help through remittances, there remain a number of challenges to this participation including perceptions of security and stability, establishing the conditions necessary for attracting investment and a lack of confidence in government institutions in the region.

Mobile vulnerabilities, transnational risks: Temporary agricultural migrants in Ontario

2009. J. Hennebry. INSCAN, Vol. 22, No. 3 (winter): 1015.

There has been a notable increase in the employment of temporary migrants in recent years across Canada, facilitated by changes to immigration policy and legal frameworks. In addition to the significant growth of existing temporary migrant worker programs, such as the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP), Canada recently introduced a new pilot project for Occupations Requiring Lower Levels of Formal Training, or the Low Skill Worker Program (LSWP), and an Expidited Labour Market Opinion process, making it easier for employers to hire workers from abroad. Although these programs are framed as temporary, their impacts on immigration policy and on Canadian multicultural society are likely to be far more enduring.

Migrant rights are human rights

2009. J. Hennebry. The Inter-American Forum on Governance: an e-conference series.

Although it is the case that a rights discourse has become part of everyday language, the discourse remains relatively weak when it comes to migrant workers in Canada and around the world. Most certainly, the rights discourse has not been translated into everyday practices that protect the rights of migrant workers and their families worldwide. In fact, although we have the language of rights clearly articulated in the 1990 UN International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (ICMW) which offers significant protections for migrant workers, Canada and most other receiving countries have yet to ratify this agreement…

Contextualizing the global nurse care chain: international migration and the status of nursing in South India

2009. M. Walton-Roberts. Summary of a presentation prepared for the Conference on Transnational Mobilities for Care: State, market and family dynamics in Asia. 10-11 September. National University of Singapore.

The impact of English language proficiency and workplace readiness on the employment outcomes of tertiary international students (Executive Summary)

2009. S. Arkoudis, L. Hawthorne, C. Baik, G. Hawthorne, K. O’Loughlin, D. Leach, E. Bexley. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Australian Government.

This project examines the influence of English language proficiency (ELP) onworkplace readiness and employment outcomes for international students and graduates who seek to work in Australia. The study adopts a mixed method approach involving a detailed review of relevant literature, semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups, and quantitative analyses of three statistical data sets—Australian 2006 Census data, Australian Education International (AEI) data from January 2002 to June 2008, and the former Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (October 2005 and October 2006).

India-Canada trade and immigration linkages: A case of regional (dis)advantage?

2009. M. Walton-Roberts. Metropolis British Columbia Working Paper Series.

Recent work has addressed the intersection between the mobility of skilled workers, product innovation and export market development, suggesting that nations that encourage or host large skilled immigrant populations might benefit from the specific cultural and economic competencies they possess. Examination of this issue through a comparative framework allows us to assess how different policy contexts might capture or squander the benefit of this economic and cultural resource. In this research project, a comparative qualitative study of British Columbia in Canada and New South Wales in Australia was undertaken to explore how key actors in the field of trade with India assessed the success of their respective national policies to capture the potential trade return from immigration, in this case from India. This paper reports on the Canada results. Using qualitative interviews with traders and officials familiar with India-Canada trade, this paper argues that rather than the regional advantage Saxenian (2006) sees linked to the movement of skilled Asian professionals in the IT industry, a discourse of regional disadvantage is present in Canada with relation to Indian immigration and its role in building effective trade links with India. The paper argues that the geography
of immigration results in a situation where competing political, cultural and economic relations both support and undermine the development of effective trade networks but that the discourse of disadvantage or deficiency associated with the nature of immigrants to Canada masks more structural deficiencies on the part of the Canadian state.

Migrants in temporary worker programs: North America’s second-class citizens

2009. L. Goldring, J. Hennebry, K. Preibisch. CanadaWatch, Spring: 36-37.

This issue is a joint project ofThe Robarts Centre for Canadian Studies at York University, and The Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte at UNAM. “Critics argue that temporary worker programs create a vulnerable class of workers with few opportunities for skills transfer, and may do more to encourage dependency rather than sustainable development. Although temporary workers in Canada are more secure compared with undocumented migrants in the United States, they are still vulnerable. The critics are right and empirical research confirms the vulnerability experienced by the workers.”

Migration and education: quality assurance and mutual recognition of qualifications

2008. L. Hawthorne. Summary of UNESCO Expert Group Meeting (Nine Country Audit).

This paper was prepared for Expert Group Meeting on Migration and Education: Quality Assurance and Mutual Recognition of Qualifications, which was held 22-23 September 2008
in UNESCO Headquarter in Paris.

Demography, migration and demand for international students

2008. L. Hawthorne. PECC/APRU-commissioned volume on international student flows, for academic publication Canada-Singapore.

Immigration, university and the tolerant second-tier city

2008. M. Walton-Roberts. CERIS Working Paper Series, No. 69.

The ongoing geographical shift in immigrant settlement patterns and the related settlement experiences of immigrants outside of the largest national cities continues to be of interest to
policymakers, practitioners, and researchers alike. This paper explores recent immigration to Kitchener-Waterloo (K-W), a second-tier city (STC) in Ontario, through the conceptual lens of the creative community and the role of the university.

Migration and education quality assurance and mutual recognition of qualifications country report: Australia

2008. L. Hawthorne. UNESCO Global Comparison Study, Paris, September.

This paper was prepared for Expert Group Meeting on Migration and Education: Quality Assurance and Mutual recognition of Qualifications, to be held 22-23 September 2008 in UNESCO Headquarter in Paris.

The impact of economic selection policy on labour market outcomes for degree-qualified migrants in Canada and Australia

2008. L. Hawthorne. IRPP Choices, 14 (5), May.

This series comprises individual IRPP Choices and IRPP Policy Matters studies on Canadian immigration policy and its challenges, and also on other countries’ immigration and refugee policies. Issues discussed in this research program include the relationship between sovereignty and economic integration, security and border control, and reconciliation of economic and humanitarian objectives.